Competition among Political Groups and Political Party Formation Issue in the First Assembly

Buşra Erimli

Abstract: In this article, the reasons for the emergence of political groups in the First Grand National Assembly of Turkey, the debates on political parties, the effects and qualifications of the groups are examined. Thus, it is aimed to reveal the importance and influence of political parties and groups in the Parliament. During the establishment of the Grand National Assembly, it was promised to avoiding from partisanship, however it was not possible in practice. The fact that deputies with different political views, representing various social strata in the Parliament, took the floor separately, caused the decision-making process to be prolonged and almost stopped. This issue was tried to be overcome by establishing political groups, and the First Anatolian and Rumelian Defense of Rights Society was established, which won the majority in the Parliament. The First Group has been influential in the decision-making processes in the assembly. Some opponents outside the First Group united and formed the Second Anatolian and Rumelian Anatolian and Rumelian Defense of Rights Society. It was seen that the Second Group influenced the decision-making processes and acted like the opposition party by establishing control over the First Group.

Keywords: The First Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Anatolian and Rumelian Defense of Rights Society, Political party, Political group, Opposition

Buşra Erimli
DOI: 10.29224/insanveinsan.1143386
Year 9, Issue 34, Fall 2022


Tam metin / Full text
(Turkish)

546 Downloads


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Debates on Religion-State Relations in Competition between Political Parties in Turkey: The Case of the Nation Party

Abidin Çevik

Abstract: The Second World War had significant economic and political results for Turkey and the rest of the world. After 1945, Turkey abandoned the one-party system of government, switched to a multi-party-political system, and started to liberalize in the economic and political fields. In this process, adversaries occurred within the Republican People’s Party, the nation’s founding party, to reconstruct Turkey’s political system. Accordingly, the opponent groups formed new parties, first the Democratic Party and then the Nation Party. In this period, religion-state relations was reshaped in the light of new paradigms, and the strict secularism mentality adopted by the Republican regime was questioned. These shifts affected the discourses of political parties so that each party repositioned itself towards religion. This study aims to discuss the policies of the Nation Party, which has developed new and original discourses in the context of religion-state relations and secularism. It also reveals the points where it differs from the other two parties. The issue of the study is related to an early period of multi-party system in Turkey. Therefore, analyzing the policies of the Nation Party, which was able to offer very liberal and radical proposals at such an earlier period, around the debates in the Turkish Grand National Assembly, will make significant contributions to Turkish political history.

Keywords: Religion-state relations, Republican People’s Party, Democratic Party, Nation Party, Secularism

Abidin Çevik
DOI: 10.29224/insanveinsan.1142593
Year 9, Issue 34, Fall 2022


Tam metin / Full text
(Turkish)

494 Downloads


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Reflection of Conflicts between Political Parties in 1965 Elections to Akis Magazine

Ömer Faruk Kırmıt

Abstract: Climate change is a global environmental problem. Increasing awareness in our country about climate change, strategies are needed to protect the natural and cultural resources of the cities which are most affected by climate change. Cities depend on natural and cultural ecosystems and their services. Developed as a new and innovative land planning approach that can contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change in cities, green infrastructure plays a role in increasing biodiversity and urban ecosystem services as well as increasing the density of natural systems in cities. In this study, the effects of climate change on urban biodiversity will be mentioned and the effects of climate change on the sustainability of urban ecosystem services will be given. Assessment of possible climate change effects will be interpreted by the framework of green infrastructure and ecosystem services.

Keywords: 1965 Elections, Akis Magazine, Metin Toker, Justice Party, CHP

Ömer Faruk Kırmıt
DOI: 10.29224/insanveinsan.1139399
Year 9, Issue 34, Fall 2022


Tam metin / Full text
(Turkish)

444 Downloads


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

The Election Cheatings in Turkey: Gerrymandering

Ali Çiçek

Abstract: The quality of contemporary democracies can only be possible if the will of the people is freely reflected in the institutions of representation and electoral law is based on the universal values of democracy. Undoubtedly, general, equal and secret voting principles, free elections and systems in which political parties or candidates can compete on equal terms are essential for the establishment of a strong and qualified democratic regime. Today’s contemporary democracies seem to apply the aforementioned principles and, in some cases, allow cheating within the system. One of these practices that cause the democratization to be unqualified is gerrymandering. Gerrymandering refers to the regulation of the electoral environment in favor of the political power or a certain group. With the Gerrymandering method, the party in power plays with the constituency in order to increase its own votes or decrease the rival votes. In this study, Law No. 6360 will be shown as an example to the gerrymandering practices, which we encountered mostly during the Democratic Party period in Turkey. In the study, the hypotheses that the partisan gerrymandering practice brought by the Law No. 6360 gave results in favor of the AK Party and resulted in unfair results in representation were defended.

Keywords: Elections, Election cheating, Gerrymandering, Partizan gerrymandering, Law no. 6360

Ali Çiçek
DOI: 10.29224/insanveinsan.1142025
Year 9, Issue 34, Fall 2022


Tam metin / Full text
(Turkish)

510 Downloads


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.